The Islamic Empire. After the death of the prophet Muhammad in the year of 632 arabic tribes succeeded to conquer the Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Egypt and North Africa within a few years, supported by the new religion Islam. The conquest of the Persian Empire of the Sasanids was mainly completed around 651.
The first muslim ruling dynasty, the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750), were members of the same tribe like the prophet Muhammad. The chair of the Caliph was built up in Syrian Damascus. In the year 750 the Umayyad-Dynasty was overturned by the Abbasid Caliphate, that transfered the capital of the Muslim Empire to Baghdad.
Note: The "Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients" (TAVO) of the university of Tübingen (1993) was used for the delimitation of the Islamic Empire about 685 AD.